Chapter 4

Future Land Use and Housing Plan                                                        



The Future Land Use Plan is one of the most important elements of the comprehensive plan.  It graphically brings together all of the chapters of the plan and evaluates all of the information that has been mapped and gathered during this planning process. Based on stated goals and objectives, this Plan will determine what future land uses would be most appropriate throughout the region and at what density.  Factors such as existing land use, natural features, soil conditions, demographics, housing, economic development trends, road conditions, sewer and water capacities, and village and neighborhood vitality all play a role in the development of the Future Land Use Plan.


The Future Land Use Plan will serve as a guide for future municipal ordinance amendments and regulations.  Municipal regulatory controls such as zoning, sewer and water facilities planning, transportation planning, and recreation planning should be based upon the recommendations of the Future Land Use Plan.


It is important to stress that the Future Land Use Plan is not a zoning map, nor does it change the zoning ordinances and maps that have been previously adopted by the municipalities in the region.  It is a reference tool and a guide that may be used by municipal officials and planners when making decisions regarding future development.


Future Land Use recommendations are based on a variety of factors: The patterns of development and existing conditions within the Borough and Township; the anticipated path of future growth in the Region; existing environmental conditions and natural resources; capacity of public facilities, such as sewer and water service, and other infrastructure; and goals of the Franklin County Comprehensive Plan.



Land Use and Housing


Goal:  Retain the existing character of the Borough and the Township by preserving natural, scenic, and open space resources; managing growth; enhancing the tax base; enhancing streetscapes; and assuring the continued desirability of the municipalities as places to live.




      Identify growth areas which are logical extensions of existing concentrations of development in the Wayne Heights, Zullinger, Old Forge/Mentzer Gap Road and Rouzerville areas, have appropriate access, can be efficiently served by the circulation system, and can be efficiently served by public sewer and water systems.


     Direct new development in the Township and Borough to the growth areas identified in this Chapter.


     Enhance the tax base through preservation of open space, agricultural land, and commercial/industrial development.


     Discourage development in areas not suitable for on-site sewage disposal which cannot be feasibly sewered.


     Encourage compact business development patterns along Main Street.


     Utilize the existing Main Street, Anchor Building Program, and forthcoming Elm Street programs.


       Minimize conflicts between non-residential and residential uses through allocation of land use and utilization of performance and design standards and buffer yards.  Discourage proximity of incompatible land uses within the area and along municipal boundaries.


     Recognize the variety of housing needs of area residents, particularly for the physically challenged/senior citizens and the Region’s workforce.


     Allow a variety of housing densities and attractive residential housing types in appropriately designated areas, consistent with the natural resources, service constraints and existing character of the municipalities.


     Encourage owner occupancy of dwelling units in the Borough and Township.


     Encourage retention of dwelling units within commercial areas to provide for mixed and continued use of these areas.


           Allocate land use on a regional rather than municipality by municipality basis.


     Maintain community character.


           Identify and preserve historic structures.


           Provide for suitable, attractive and compatible commercial and office uses at appropriate locations, consistent with existing land use patterns, support services, and the transportation system. 


     Encourage additional commercial development along Main Street at designated locations and encourage appropriate economic use of the vacant Landis Tool Company.


     Work to retain existing and attract new desirable businesses in the community, and foster the viability of downtown Waynesboro, PA Route 16 corridor in Washington Township, industrial parks in the Township, and vacant industrial properties within the Borough through revitalization efforts and streetscape improvements.


          Provide for safe and sound housing for present and future residents.  Allocate sufficient land to accommodate projected growth.


          Provide for the maintenance and any necessary improvement of existing residential areas and housing stock through appropriate land use controls and enforcement policies and programs.


     Establish appropriate policies for residential conversions within the area which will be consistent with retention of the character, stability, and upkeep of residential neighborhoods and provision of adequate parking facilities.


       Plan land uses and densities which will be consistent with the need to preserve open land, manage traffic, maintain the quality of life in the area, and have manageable tax structures.





A.        Update zoning maps and zoning district provisions, to reflect the Future Land Use Plan as necessary.


B.        Update Statements of Community Development Objectives contained in Township and Borough zoning ordinances to be consistent with this Plan.


C.        In zoning ordinances, provide for land development techniques designed to protect existing resources, provide open spaces, enhance streetscapes, and protect the character of existing villages.


1.         Conservation Zoning (Growing Greener Concept of Natural Lands Trust) in the Region:


Determine whether Conservation Zoning should be the default and/or encouraged method of development, with density disincentives given to other methods of development which result in less open space and protection of resources.  The typical Conservation Zoning development process is:


a.         Net out natural resources


b.         Establish maximum overall density


c.         Establish minimum substantial open space requirement


d.         Establish alternative methods of development


e.         Require important natural features and resources, such as scenic vistas, historic sites, agriculture, steep slopes, wetlands, and woodland, to be contained in open space


f.          Provide visual and physical access to open space areas


2.         Lot averaging, as appropriate, which provides:


            a.         A maximum overall density


            b.         Flexibility in lot size, with a minimum established


c.         Natural features and resources are contained in larger lots so houses can be sited away from them


3.         Traditional Neighborhood Development (Neotraditional Development), and Village Extension and Village Design within the Villages.   These methods promote the following concepts:


a.         Creation of a sense of community


            b.         Pedestrian oriented design


            c.         Central community facilities


            d.         Public spaces            


            e.         Shallow setbacks


            f.          Street trees


            g.         Alleys where appropriate


            h.         Compact development


            i.          Interconnected streets, closer to a grid pattern


            j.          Historic development patterns of towns


4.         Adopt corridor overlay zoning along major commercial roads, such as PA Routes 16, 316, and Washington Township Boulevard, to enhance the appearance of these corridors, enhance safety and traffic movement, and maintain economic viability.  Such overlay zoning would address:


a.         Coordinate landscaping, signage, lighting, street furniture, paving materials, design of site improvements, building façade and windows displays throughout the road corridors


b.         Increase pedestrian and vehicular connections to adjoining properties and within properties


c.         Increase size and quantity of landscape material


d.         Integrate historic and cultural resources into development


e.         Provide site amenities


f.          Renovate building facades


g.         Minimize curb cuts and unrestricted access


h.         Provide more attractive signage


i.          Locate parking to the rear and side of buildings where appropriate and feasible


j.          Integrate architecture, landscaping and screening


k.         Encourage pedestrian oriented design (e.g., sidewalks and benches)


l.          Encourage pedestrian oriented spaces in downtown Waynesboro


m.        Screen loading areas, outdoor storage and dumpsters


n.         Provide safe bus stops with shelters, with pedestrian connections to buildings.


D.        In zoning ordinances, require areas for economic development to be developed through coordinated, attractive commercial and business parks and discourage additional strip commercial development in the Township.   


E.         Consider allowing convenience commercial uses in or near residential developments to reduce traffic to and from commercial areas in the Region.


F.         The Township and Borough should continue to monitor zoning along municipal boundaries to provide for compatible zoning districts.


G.        Within zoning district provisions, considering the entire Region as a whole, provide for the accommodation of housing in different dwelling types and at appropriate densities for households from all economic and demographic groups within the Region.


H.        Address architectural and related issues within zoning ordinances.  For example:


1.         In some zoning districts, such as but not limited to neighborhood commercial zoning district, limits on commercial building size will be appropriate to maintain existing character.


2.         In some zoning districts, emphasis should be placed on encouraging architecture consistent with existing community and/or architectural character.


3.         In all Commercial districts, encourage architecture consistent with community character.  Architectural treatments of building facades should avoid the “big box” appearance.


I.          Additional zoning actions include:


1.         Promote buffers and/or performance and design standards where there will be potentially conflicting uses.


2.         Consider requiring impact statements (environmental, traffic, services, fiscal, etc.) with requested zoning amendments requiring a zoning district change, to address the impacts of the requested amendment.


3.         Giving emphasis to density bonuses for development served by, or with potential to be served by public sewer and public water, rather than development served by package/private systems or individual systems.


J.         Update municipal Subdivision and Land Development Ordinances, as necessary.  Options include:


1.         Require street furniture/pedestrian amenities as required improvements pursuant to Borough and village streetscape plans.


2.         Adopt appropriate refinements to implement the Growing Greener Conservation Zoning Concept.


If the Conservation Zoning concept is used, the design procedure is:


           Identify conservation areas

           Locate house sites

           Align streets and trails

           Draw lot lines


3.         Require pre-design meetings between planning commissions and developers prior to preparation and submission of subdivision and land development plans.


4.         Stormwater management ordinances prepared in accordance with Act 167 Stormwater Management Plans should be consistent with the objectives of this Plan.


K.        Municipal Act 537 plans and water supply planning should be coordinated with this plan, particularly the Future Land Use Plan, to promote compact, efficient, orderly, and phased development within and contiguous to existing developed areas.  


L.         Neighborhood and Streetscape Plans for the Borough and larger Villages and growth areas such as Rouzerville, Blue Ridge Summit, and Zullinger should be prepared.  Issues to be addressed include: landscaping, signage, street furniture, lighting, parking locations and design standards, enhancing the sense of community identity through providing public spaces, and enhancing gateways to the communities.  Coordinate such efforts with PADCED (Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic Development) and PennDOT where applicable.


M.       Brownfield properties could be remediated and redeveloped as industrial uses.  An authority should be formed to assist in the reclamation and administration of these properties.


N.        Identify means of maintaining and enhancing existing neighborhoods.
Agricultural Resources 




A.                 To promote the long term economic vitality of agriculture, the Township should identify and encourage the preservation of the most viable agricultural lands.  Lands that should receive priority include:


-         Land that is protected by existing restrictions and/or easements against development, including lands that have had easements purchased or are adjacent to such lands;

-         Land that is composed of capability class I, II, or III as defined by the USDA.

-         Land that is currently in agricultural use.

-         Land that is included within an approved Agricultural Security Area..


B.        The Township should consider whether to enact Effective Agricultural Zoning regulations for the lands designated as Agriculture on the Future Land Use Map.  Effective Agricultural zones permit a wide variety of farming uses, including farm-related businesses and restrict non-farm uses that can be disruptive to agricultural activities.  Non-agricultural dwelling unit density is strictly limited to one dwelling unit per 20 to 25 acres average, with the homes required to be built on small lots. 


            Examples of effective agriculture preservation techniques include:


·        Fixed System Formula – allows one dwelling unit for a specified number of acres (1 du / 5 acres or 1 du / 25 acres);

·        Sliding Scale Formula – varies the number of permitted dwelling units based on the acreage of the entire parcel.  The result is that larger parcels are permitted to have proportionately less dwellings than smaller parcels;

·        Percentage-System Formula – Permits only a percentage of the entire parcel to be subdivided or developed (example 10%).


C.        The Township should encourage preserving agricultural operations through the following administrative actions:


1.         Work with local farmers to encourage participation in the Washington Township Agricultural Security Area.


2.                     Work with local farmers to encourage participation in the Franklin County Ag Preservation Program.

3.         Encourage individual participation in other Purchase of Agricultural Conservation Easements Programs.


4.         Support measures to relieve property tax burden for farmers.


5.         Limit extension of planned public sewer and water facilities to agricultural areas only when failing systems are involved.


6.         Limit non-farm uses which could cause conflicts with agricultural practices and/or require buffers for non-farm uses around the perimeter of farms.


7.         Allow conservation zoning development (Growing Greener) as an option in agricultural areas.


8.         Promote enrollment in Act 319 (Clean and Green) tax relief program.


9.         Allow for and give incentives to compact development and clustering of housing for development.


10.       Give disincentives to inefficient development techniques.


D.              The Township should allow farmers to supplement income through home businesses, home occupations and farm related businesses; allow farm support businesses and businesses which market or process farm products; establish appropriate controls on intensive agricultural operations; and permit appropriate recreational activities, such as hayrides, corn mazes, and festivals.



















The principal benefit of multi-municipal planning is the opportunity to coordinate land uses among the participating municipalities.  Even if the implementation process does not include a joint zoning ordinance, much is gained if the individual ordinances define land uses in the same way.  The following text is not recommended ordinance language, but indicates the type of use and general function of each land use identified on the Future Land Use map. 


While it is not required to specify lot sizes in the Comprehensive Plan, doing so makes it much easier to draft the implementing zoning ordinances.  The target densities for every category should be used as a starting point when amending zoning district requirements. Areas with recommendations for higher density development are contingent on the availability of public sewer and water service.


The Future Land Use Plan Map for the Waynesboro/Washington Township Joint Comprehensive Plan, Figure 4.1, includes the following Land Use Categories:


·        Agricultural

·        Forest Conservation

·        Low Density Residential

·        Medium Density Residential

·        Medium Density Mobile Home Residential

·        High Density Residential

·        Commercial

·        Commercial Neighborhood

·        Industrial

·        Borough Center

·        Public/Semi-Public

·        Hospital/Office





The Pennsylvania Municipalities Planning Code introduced the concept of Designated Growth Areas, which are regions within a multi‑municipal plan that preferably includes or is adjacent to existing developed areas or villages. In Growth Areas, residential and mixed use development is permitted or planned for at densities of more than one unit per acre, commercial, industrial and institutional uses are permitted or planned for, and public infrastructure services are provided or planned. The intent of the Designated Growth Area is to provide for orderly and efficient development to accommodate the projected growth of the area within the next 20 years.

As stated in the Land Use and Housing Plan component of the Franklin County Comprehensive Plan:


“Direct most residential development to locations where public water and sewage services can be efficiently provided- to minimize conflicts with agriculture and to minimize the amount of land that is consumed”.


The Franklin County Plan further states:


“Encourage the clustering of homes on the most suitable portions of a tract to permanently preserve important natural features or usable tracts of farmland”.


For the purposes of this Joint Comprehensive Plan, Growth Areas will be areas where public sewer and public water service is provided, or could be provided with reasonable ease (for example a tract of land within one quarter mile of the system).







Description - Cultivation of the soil, forestry, and the raising of livestock for commercial or private purposes, including ancillary uses such as the residence of the farm operator.   Commercial uses which directly support farm operations are typically allowed.


Planning Objective – Target critical areas where agricultural activities are practiced for future preservation.  Uses related to agriculture including support businesses should be encouraged.  Limited residential development may follow Conservation Zoning techniques in some areas to preserve open space.


Recommended Land Uses – Cropland; Pastureland; Farm-related structures and businesses; Woodlands; Limited residential; Public and municipal uses.


Recommended Development Densities/Strategies – If residential development is permitted, it should be at lower average densities (one dwelling per 2 acres) and should not encroach on active farmland.  Conservation Zoning development, and effective agricultural zoning techniques such as sliding scale, where larger parcels have proportionately less dwellings than smaller ones or percentage-based lot calculation methods should be encouraged in this district.  Public sewer and water service is not recommended for Agricultural areas unless public health issues are imminent.  Participation in the Township’s Agricultural Security Area should be encouraged.




Description - These areas contain a mixture of agricultural, woodland, open space, and low density residential uses.  Factors such as the presence of steep slopes, woodlands, wetlands, and/or floodplains limit the development potential of these areas.


Planning Objective – Accommodate limited very low density development; agricultural uses; rural resources; open space and recreation.


Recommended Land Uses – Limited low density residential; Cropland; Pastureland; Open space; Farm-related structures and businesses; Woodlands; Public, Semi-Public;  Institutional, and municipal use.


Recommended Development Densities/Strategies – Larger lots of at least one to three acres or more per dwelling unit.  Conservation Zoning Development techniques are encouraged in this district.  Public sewer and water service is not recommended for Forest/Rural Conservation areas, except in the cases of Conservation Zoning developments.




Description - The lowest density of residential.  The defining characteristic of these areas is that only single-family detached homes (and accessory uses) are permitted.


Planning Objective – To accommodate continued low density residential development where such development is occurring, in a setting that will continue to contain some rural characteristics such as woodland and open space.


Recommended Land Uses – Single Family detached dwellings; Woodlands; Parks/Open Space; Municipal Use.


Recommended Development Densities/Strategies – Density of approximately 10,000 square feet to one unit per acre.  Higher density development may be allowed in the Borough, or through Conservation Zoning development in the Township, provided that public sewer and water service is available where conservation zoning is adopted. Conservation Zoning development should be used for developments of 8 acres or more.  Public sewer and water service is a necessity in developments where overall density is approximately 15,000 square feet or less.







Description - This area is recommended for higher densities than the Low Density Residential category, and allows narrower lots.  Also, single-family semi-detached homes may be permitted as well as detached houses.


Planning Objective – Recommended areas where continued residential development should occur.  


Recommended Land Uses – Single family detached dwellings; Single family semi-detached dwellings; Park/Open Space Uses.


Recommended Development Densities/Strategies – Maximum density range up to approximately 14 units per acre (in the Borough), depending on the availability of public facilities.  Lower densities if on-site facilities are used.  Conservation Zoning development is appropriate in these areas in the Township.





Description - This area permits all dwelling types, including single family detached, semi-detached, as well as townhouses, apartment buildings, and mobile home parks.


Planning Objective – These areas are where the greatest concentration of high density residential development has and should occur.


Recommended Land Uses – Single family detached dwellings; Single family semi-detached dwellings; Townhouses; Apartments; Park/Open Space.


Recommended Development Densities/Strategies – Density range of 5 to approximately 20 units per acre, depending on the availability of public facilities. 





Definition - These areas will provide for a mixture of residential uses at a variety of densities, including mobile and manufactured homes.


Planning Objective - Provide appropriate areas for mobile and manufactured homes and parks, as well as other higher density residential uses.


Recommended Land Uses  Single family detached dwellings; Single family semi-detached dwellings; Townhouses; Apartments; Mobile and manufactured homes; Park/Open Space


Recommended Development Densities/Strategies – Density of approximately 5,000 square foot lots up to one acre, depending on the availability of public facilities.





Description - These areas will be characterized by a mix of uses including residential uses and related convenience-commercial areas, second floor apartments, and professional offices at a variety of densities.


Planning Objective – Provide areas to encourage a mixture of residential and appropriate commercial uses within the village of Blue Ridge Summit and along PA Route 997.  The critical element here is the creation of an environment where the commercial uses are compatible with existing residential uses.  Commercial uses within these areas will be at a smaller neighborhood scale.  Highway oriented uses, such as garages and service stations, are not recommended in these areas.


Recommended Land Uses – Offices; Small-scale retail and local commercial and personal service uses.  Single family dwellings, semi-detached dwellings; Parks and Recreation;  Public, institutional, and municipal uses.


Recommended Development Densities/Strategies – Density will vary depending on the use and the availability of public facilities.  Traditional Neighborhood Design development may be appropriate within these areas to blend in with the Region’s existing development pattern.





Description - This category includes most kinds of retail sales and businesses and highway-oriented businesses like those found along PA Route 16, Washington Township Boulevard, and PA Route 997.


Planning Objective – Provide for appropriate commercial development in locations where a cluster of commercial uses exist.  These uses should be more intensive, highway oriented commercial uses.


Recommended Land Uses – Highway oriented commercial uses such as retail; offices; supermarkets; multi-tenant shopping plazas; automobile related uses.


Recommended Development Densities/StrategiesLot sizes may vary, with density appropriate as needed by use, and type of sewer and water service.  





Description - This category will be intended to accommodate a variety of industrial uses, due to access to major highways and availability of required utilities.


Planning Objective – Provide areas to accommodate a wide range of industrial uses.


Recommended Land Uses – Offices; Printing and Publishing uses; Warehousing and Distribution; Manufacturing; Food Processing; Transportation.


Recommended Development Densities/Strategies – One acre minimum lot size, or larger as appropriate for use, depending on the site.  There will be adaptive re-use of some industrial sites in the Borough in the future.  





Definition - This area will be chiefly a commercial area, but professional offices, and limited mixed use residential will also be accommodated, and at a high density.


Planning Objective – Area intended to allow continued growth of the existing downtown core, providing services including the niche specialty shops.  The critical element here is the creation of a flexible, pedestrian-friendly environment where the commercial uses are compatible with existing uses.  Commercial uses within this district will be at a smaller scale and should include uses such as corner grocery stores, coffee shops, restaurants and cafes, specialty retail shops, and offices.  Highway oriented uses are not recommended in this area.


Target area for economic activity and re-development of vacant buildings with the goal of re-establishing the central business district as a destination. Emphasis should be on protection of the character of the historic character of the area.


Recommended Land Uses - Small-scale commercial and specialty retail professional and government offices; conversion and loft apartments; parks and recreation; day-to-day commercial uses.


Recommended Development Densities/Strategies – Density requirements should be flexible in this area, depending on the use.  Lot sizes of 5,000 square feet or less average, provided pedestrian facilities are provided. Neo traditional development may be appropriate within these areas to create a sense of ‘place’, while discouraging automobile-dependent uses and large parking lots.  Access management strategies are extremely important in this area and off-street parking areas should be to the side or rear of the structures.





Definition - This area depicts on the future land use map the region’s school district and municipal facilities, churches, cemeteries, and other cultural features.


Planning Objective – To provide areas for public or semi-public uses, as well as limited professional office campuses.


Recommended Land Uses – School district facilities; offices, churches; cemeteries; municipal use;  recreational uses.


Recommended Development Densities/Strategies Flexible, based on use.  Design standards should be incorporated into ordinances to ensure appropriate design and development occurs.





Definition – This area depicts on the future land use map Waynesboro Hospital and office buildings in the vicinity of the Hospital.


Planning Objective – To protect the existing hospital area from uses which adversely affect the necessary functions of the hospital and to provide additional opportunities for hospital and health-related offices and services close to the hospital.


Recommended Land Uses – Hospital, medical and dental offices and clinics, medical laboratories and diagnostic centers, offices administering health and welfare programs and services, nursing and convalescent homes. 


Future Land Use Map Acreage by Category


Future Land Use

                Acres (Approximate)



Borough Center




Commercial Neighborhood


Forest Conservation


High Density Residential






Low Density Residential


Medium Density Mobile Home Residential


Medium Density Residential










The objectives for housing are to provide for safe and sound housing for present and future residents; provide adequate areas for accommodation of housing for the projected population; to allow for a variety of housing densities, development patterns, and attractive residential housing types for all age groups in appropriately designated areas within the natural and service constraints of the Region; to provide for maintenance of the character of existing residential areas and housing stock through appropriate coordinated land use controls, and address the housing needs of the elderly and disabled in the community. 


Provision for a variety of housing densities, housing types, and development patterns in appropriately designated areas is accomplished through the Future Land Use Plan.  Maintenance of the existing housing stock and adequacy of new housing can be accomplished through enforcement of building codes and utilization of property maintenance codes. 


Another concern is providing for housing for people trying to enter the housing market and housing for those families living and working in the Region.  Allowing for a variety of housing types, including multiple family, and higher densities of development when public sewer and water is available, is important to addressing this need.


While housing affordability issues typically reflect market conditions, the Township and Borough can maintain construction and housing codes which are reasonably based on protecting public health, safety and general welfare, and which do not contain provisions solely to increase the luxury of dwelling units.  This is facilitated by use of the Uniform Construction Code.  Excessive standards in municipal regulations can unnecessarily raise housing costs.


New housing developments should be well-planned, attractive living environments.  A variety of development options can be made available, including but not limited to conservation zoning development, traditional and village patterns, in addition to more typical single family development.


The existing character of residential areas can be maintained through appropriate zoning provisions and review of subdivision and land development plans. 




A.        Establish and maintain adequate housing and property maintenance codes and zoning ordinance provisions as necessary to maintain the building stock and properties within the Region.


B.        Foster programs which encourage home renovation and rehabilitation in existing neighborhoods.  Enact land use regulations that provide adequate opportunities for affordable workforce housing.


C.        Work with residents of the Region and regional taxing entities to identify programs and policies that will help residents maintain and enhance their properties, and meet housing expenses and retain their homes as owner-occupied single family residences.


D.        Regulate housing conversions through zoning provisions and require adequate parking to be provided.


E.         Provide for a variety of housing types and densities through zoning.


F.         Enact zoning regulations that provide incentives for senior housing in the Residential Areas on the Future Land Use Map.  Consider appropriateness of such techniques or density incentives or overlay treatments.


G.        Encourage housing development in existing villages at densities consistent with the Future Land Use Map.


Capacity for Future Development


The Future Land Use and Housing Plan must provide documentation that there is a sufficient amount of available land for future development to accommodate the future population projected up to the year 2020.  Table 4.1 illustrates Region’s population projections (from PA DEP and SSM) for 2010 and 2020.  The projected increase for the Region from 2000 to 2020 is approximately 3,459 additional persons.  Table 4.2 provides the projected need for additional housing units in the Region.  In order to accommodate the projected  population increase, there will be a need for an additional 1,439 new housing units by 2020.



Table 4.1:  Population Projections; U.S. Census Bureau Estimated 2007 Population







2007 EST

2010 PROJ

2020 PROJ

Waynesboro Borough






Washington Township













SOURCE: US Census; PA DEP 2006;  SSM

* Total  existing occupied housing units as of 2000

Table 4.2:  Housing Need Projections









2000-2020 % Increase

Waynesboro Borough

9, 614





Borough housing requirement

@2.26 persons/household







Washington Township  






Township housing requirement

@2.52 persons/household




+1,114 units















+1,439 units



Table 4.3:      Build Out Capacity for Population Growth in Sewer and Water

                        Service Areas – Region





Future Land Use

Plan Category




Available Undeveloped Acres

(in sewer service area)





Available Acres Minus 20%






Development Density



Likely Maximum Potential for Dwelling Units at Build Out



Likely Maximum Potential Range for Additional Persons*

Medium Density Residential



2-5 D.U./Acre

790--1,975 units    


Low Density Residential



1-3 D.U./Acre

626--1878 units


Commercial Neighborhood













1,419--3,862 units  


*Used 2.52 persons per dwelling unit, average for Washington Township, the highest average in the Region.

  Source:  US Census Bureau.

** only 50% of available acres were factored into Commercial Neighborhood, assuming mixed-use development occurs.

– assumed 20% of tract would not be available for inclusion within residential lots (50% for Commercial Neighborhood)



Table 4.3 calculates a maximum build out capacity range for population growth in the sewer and water service areas as from 3,575 to 9,731 additional persons, depending on the density of development.  This figure does NOT include additional available acreage within the categories outside of the sewer and water service area, where undoubtedly there will be some additional growth (see Table 4.4).  Even after excluding the non-serviced categories, this build-out capacity exceeds the initial projected 2000-2020 population increase for the Region of 3,336 additional persons.  It is a safe assumption that the Region will have more than enough capacity to handle anticipated future growth for the life span of this Plan and beyond.










Table 4.4:   Build Out Capacity for Population Growth Outside Sewer and Water

                     Service Areas – Region





Future Land Use

Plan Category




Available Undeveloped Acres





Available Acres Minus 20%





Development Density


Likely Maximum Potential for Dwelling Units at Build Out



Likely Maximum Potential range for additional persons*

Medium Density Residential



1-2 D.U./Acre

378--756 units  


Low Density Residential



1 D.U / Acre




Commercial Neighborhood


25 **


1-2 D.U./Acre










*Used 2.52 persons per dwelling unit, average for Washington Township, the highest average in the Region.

  Source:  US Census Bureau.

** only 50% of available acres were factored into Commercial Neighborhood, assuming mixed-use development occurs.

– assumed 20% of tract would not be available for inclusion within residential lots (50% for Commercial Neighborhood)



This Joint Comprehensive Plan recommends that the majority of residential growth occur within areas capable of providing public sewer and public water service.  However, undoubtedly, there will be lower density development occurring outside of these areas.  Table 4.4 calculates a build out capacity range for population growth OUTSIDE of the sewer and water service areas as from 3,019 to 4,034 additional persons, depending on the density of development.  This figure is in addition to the capacity range depicted in Table 4.3.   The total overall capacity for development in the Region, (Tables 4.3 and 4.4), is a range of 2,617 to 5,463 additional units.  As of 2007, there are 1,263 units approved and 1,583 units in the process.  These 2,846 units count toward the Region’s needs analysis, which shows that if the housing trend continues at this pace, the Region can expect to be at the upper end of the calculated ranges.


Environmental Considerations for Future Development


As development occurs in the Region, particularly in the Forest Conservation and Agricultural areas, which contain the greatest extent of sensitive environmental resources in the Region, care must be taken to preserve and protect the resources identified within each tract of land.  The following approaches should be taken, in a consistent manner within the Region, to development in these areas:


·        An ongoing awareness of and sensitivity toward the natural resources of the area should be encouraged.


·        Development should be concerned with geologic stability, soils suitability, groundwater supplies and stream flows.


·        Groundwater resources should be protected against depletion and contamination.


·        Methods of encouraging replenishment of the groundwater supply should be utilized.


·        Streams, ponds and wetlands should be protected against pollution from point sources and runoff.


·        Floodplains and poorly drained soils should be protected from encroachment.


·        The loss of topsoil should be minimized.


·        The retention and establishment of trees and other vegetation should be encouraged to control erosion, shade surface waters, control stormwater flow, create wind breaks, provide animal habitats and provide visual amenities.


·        The preservation of scenic viewsheds and scenic road corridors should be encouraged.


·        Steep slopes should generally be avoided.


·        The protection, preservation and enhancement of historic resources should be encouraged.


·        The adaptive reuse of historic structures should be encouraged where appropriate.


·        Innovative land development techniques should be used to minimize land consumption, preserve ecosystems, preserve agricultural lands and preserve natural resources and open space.


·        The provision of open space and recreation areas for active and passive recreation should be encouraged. Visual and physical access to the open space system should be provided.


·        The coordination of open space and circulation systems among adjoining developments should be encouraged and required where feasible, including walking trails.


·        A system of bicycle paths and sidewalks should be encouraged.


·        Incorporation of resources into development plans should be encouraged.


·        Flexible approaches to site design to recognize resources should be encouraged.


·        Not permitting invasive species to be planted by developers as part of landscaping plans.


Recommended Development Concepts


The Action Plan contains recommendations for land development techniques and processes designed to protect existing resources, provide open spaces, encourage appropriate development which is consistent with existing development patterns, and enhance streetscapes.  Because of the rural character of much of the Region and the existing population centers and Villages, techniques which are especially recommended include Traditional Neighborhood Development (TND) and Conservation Zoning Development in the Township.  TND is particularly appropriate within and surrounding existing settlements such as the Borough and villages, and would be appropriate in designated growth areas in the Region.  Conservation Development could be used to help preserve open space and agricultural resources when development occurs in more rural areas of the Township.


The Elements of Traditional Neighborhood Design


    Limited Size:  A village or neighborhood is limited to a 1/4 mile radius (up to 200 acres), or a five minute walk from the center to the edge.


    Mixed Uses:  The inclusion of retail and commercial activity with residential uses brings the needs of life within walking distance for all ages and social groups. A variety of housing types is a standard element, including single family, duplex, townhouses, and apartments over shops, which can bring safety and vitality to the town center.


    Street Network: A traditional grid or web pattern creates a more understandable system and more       choices for travel routes, which is effective for pedestrians as well as the automobile.


    On-Street Parking:  Helps to slow down traffic, acts as a buffer between pedestrians and moving traffic, and increases opportunities for drivers to find convenient parking.


    Alleys and Lanes:  Give secondary access to property for deliveries:  locating parking garages, utilities and garbage collection here preserves the beauty of the streetscape.


    Sidewalks and Pedestrian Paths: An emphasis on "walkability," or the needs of the pedestrian, makes destinations accessible to residents, including children and the elderly.


    Borough Center and Square: A central focal point for community life, providing a special place for       public events, and is the appropriate place for mixing retail, civic and business life.


    Shallow Setbacks: Placing buildings in the Borough close to sidewalks creates a friendlier "outdoor room."


    Outbuildings:  Secondary structures normally located at a rear alley allow for parking, storage, workshop space, home offices or a rental apartment.


    Porches:  Create spaces for a sociable transition from the public street to the private home and provide shelter and shade.


    Building Types:  Designed to allow for adaptation from one use to another, as markets dictate, with an emphasis on local historical style.


    Open Space:  A variety of types are included for specific needs, from the regional parks, to the neighborhood playground, to a green buffer, bringing nature into the human environment.



Conservation Zoning (Growing Greener)


Growing Greener[1] is a statewide community planning initiative which is designed to help communities use the development regulation process to their advantage to protect interconnected networks of greenways and permanent open space.


Each time a property is developed into a residential subdivision, an opportunity exists for adding land to a community-wide network of open space. Although such opportunities are seldom taken in many municipalities, this situation could be reversed fairly easily by making several small but significant changes to the Township’s basic local land-use documents – the zoning ordinance and the subdivision and land development ordinance. Conservation Zoning rearranges the density on each development parcel as it is being planned so that only half (or less) of the buildable land is consumed by house lots and streets. Without controversial “down zoning” (decreasing the number of house lots), the same number of homes can be built in a less land-consumptive manner, allowing the balance of the property to be permanently protected and added to an interconnected network of community green spaces. This “density-neutral” approach provides a fair and equitable way to balance conservation and development objectives.


Currently, Washington Township is updating their zoning ordinance to include the Growing Greener Conservation Zoning concepts for selected zoning districts.



Infill Policies


Two of the objectives for land use are to encourage new residential development to take place as infill within and near the Borough and other existing settlements with infrastructure of adequate capacity and functionality and promote infill and revitalization within existing centers, in conformity with the general character of the existing centers.  There are a number of strategies which can be used to promote infill.  The following policies can be reviewed as a starting point in determining the most appropriate methods for use in the Region.  Land consumption for new development can be minimized if development or redevelopment occurs on vacant or underutilized parcels within existing developed areas.  Development costs can sometimes be reduced because of the accessibility of existing infrastructure and services.



Potential Infill Promotion Strategies


Zoning Strategies


1.         Target and map areas for infill development. Identify parcels, developments, and existing vacant or underutilized buildings and lots.


2.         Determine types of development desired.


3.         Zone areas appropriately to allow desired land uses.


4.         Create infill development opportunities overlay districts as necessary.


5.         Consider whether more design flexibility in ordinances is necessary to achieve the desired end – such as flexibility in setbacks, yard requirements, lot widths, and lot size.


6.         Consider density bonuses to lowest acceptable lot size or highest intensity of use consistent with available sewer and water facilities.


7.         Consider allowing nearby convenience services in designated economic development, mixed use, or infill overlay areas.


8.         Apply appropriate standards to non-conforming lots which can allow reasonable development.


9.         Where appropriate, consider well-designed, buffered mixed uses or dwelling types, if appropriate infrastructure is available.


10.       Consider transfer of development rights with bonuses to target development areas from areas targeted for preservation or conservation.


11.       Eliminate incentives to development in non-growth and non-targeted areas. 


Subdivision and Land Development Strategies


12.       Streamline procedures and permitting.


                       reduce delays and hearings

                       have expeditor


13.       Review level of service standards (such as amount of recreation) or design standards (such as road widths) for appropriateness in each situation.


14.       Consider appropriateness of incentives for infill projects

                       reduced development/permit fees

                       reduced impact fees

                       reduced infrastructure connection fees


15.       Consider appropriateness of allowing/promoting re-subdivision or redesign of very low density tracts to more efficient, land conserving patterns if appropriate infrastructure is available.


Public Relations Strategies


16.       Stimulate developer interest in infill development and educate consumer/public regarding benefits and availability of infill:


                       promotional/publicity campaign for infill

                       make parcel data available

                       establish cooperative demonstration project


                       training programs

                       design competition for demonstration project


17.       Prepare neighborhood strategies with input from residents; cooperation with, involvement of, and information to existing residents.


18.       Inform existing residents of projects, invite participation in review, hold project meetings with developers at initial stages.


19.       Prepare appropriate protective design standards such as traffic calming, landscaping, vegetation retention or replacement, and permissible land uses.


20.       Encourage lending institutions to be supportive of infill initiative in providing lending.


Municipal Financial Policies


21.       Consider appropriateness of real estate transfer tax relief for purchase of properties in target areas.


22.       Consider appropriateness of property tax abatement in target areas.


23.       Foster programs which encourage building renovation and rehabilitation in existing neighborhoods.


24.       Identify strategies for assembling parcels (with realtors and developers).


Municipal Infrastructure Policies


25.       Identify need for Infrastructure improvements (new or improved roads, parks, utilities, streetscape improvements, drainage facilities, pathways).


26.       Facilitate accessibility to community facilities and services (senior centers, community centers, etc.).


27.       Locate municipal services near growth and target areas.


Official Map


Article IV of the Pennsylvania Municipalities Planning Code authorizes the governing body of each municipality with power to create an official map of all or a portion of the municipality which may show elements of the Joint Comprehensive Plan with regard to public lands and facilities, and which may include, but need not be limited to:


1.         Existing and proposed public streets, watercourses and public grounds, including widening, narrowing, extensions, diminutions, openings or closings.


2.         Existing and proposed public parks, playgrounds, and open space reservations.


3.         Pedestrian ways and easements.


4.         Transit right-of-ways and easements.


5.         Flood control basins, floodways and floodplains, stormwater management areas and drainage easements.


6.         Support facilities, easements and other properties held by public bodies undertaking the elements described in the Joint Comprehensive Plan.


The Township Supervisors and Borough Council members may make surveys and maps to identify the location of property, traffic way alignment or utility easement by use of property records, aerial photography, photogrammetric mapping or other method sufficient for identification, description and publication of the map components.  For acquisition of lands and easements, boundary descriptions by metes and bounds must be made and sealed by a licensed surveyor.


The adoption of any street lines or other public lands as part of the official map does not constitute the opening or establishment of any street nor the taking or acceptance of any land, nor does it obligate the municipality to improve or maintain any such street or land.  The adoption of proposed watercourses or public grounds as part of the official map does not constitute a taking or acceptance of any land by the municipality.


For the purpose of maintaining the integrity of the official map, no permit shall be issued for any building within the lines of any street, watercourse, or public ground shown or laid out on the official map.  No person shall recover any damages for the taking for public use of any building or improvements constructed within the lines of any street, watercourse, or public ground after the same shall have been included in the official map, and any such building or improvements shall be removed at the expense of the owner.  However, when the property of which the reserved location forms a part, cannot yield a reasonable return to the owner unless a permit shall be granted, the owner may apply to the governing body for the grant of a special encroachment permit to build.


The Township or Borough may fix the time for which streets, watercourses and public grounds on the official map shall be deemed reserved for future taking or acquisition for public use.  However, the reservation for public grounds shall lapse and become void one year after an owner of such property has submitted a written notice to the governing body announcing his intentions to build, subdivide or otherwise develop the land covered by the reservation, or has made formal application for an official permit to build a structure for private use, unless the governing body shall have acquired the property or begun condemnation proceedings to acquire such property before the end of the year. 



Target Areas


Certain areas on the Future Land Use Plan have been identified as Target Areas in Figure 4.2. 


Commercial Enhancement Areas


Commercial Enhancement Areas include Commercial areas along Route 16.  These areas have been developed for a variety of commercial uses and in a variety of manners, from strip commercial development to planned shopping centers.  Enhancement is called for now or could be called for in the future to address such issues as access management to Route 16, aesthetics of the area, and signage control.  Primary techniques to use in these areas would be streetscape plans to address lighting, signage, landscaping, street furniture, access management, and improved pedestrian access; façade improvement programs; and zoning and subdivision and land development ordinance provisions.


Ordinance provisions could address access management, signage standards, lighting standards, landscaping and buffering requirements, improvement requirements, and design and performance standards.


Creation of Pedestrian Linkage Area


This Plan supports improved pedestrian/bicycle linkage between the Borough and the Township.  One of the critical areas in which to improve such linkage is the vicinity of Route 16.  Conceptual elements in a pedestrian/bicycle system are shown on Figure 7.4.


Downtown Revitalization Area


The Downtown Revitalization Area is the Borough Center.  This area is the focus of the Main Street activities of Mainstreet Waynesboro, Inc. to secure appropriate re-use and infill of vacant and underutilized properties, implement the façade improvement program, implement the Downtown Master Plan, investigate the Anchor Building Program, and work with Franklin County government to have satellite County facilities located in downtown Waynesboro.  Implementation of the Downtown Master Plan will include such activities as:


           recruiting appropriate retail to the Main Street area,

           creating gateway signage at the entrance to downtown,

           preparing streetscape plans, and

           improving pedestrian linkages between parking areas and Main Street, and adding pedestrian-friendly outdoor use areas along linkages.


Industrial Reinvestment Areas


The Industrial Reinvestment areas correspond to some of the designated industrial areas in the Borough on the Future Land Use Plan.  In these areas, elements of the economic development program will be implemented, including:


            Providing financial incentives for re-use of buildings;


Securing land and buildings for industrial development.  Determine if an authority should be established to acquire and promote the reuse of vacant and underutilized buildings and assist in the reclamation and administration of Brownfield properties;


Supporting business incubation and micro-enterprise use of vacant and underutilized buildings; and


            Remediating and redeveloping Brownfield properties.


These are areas where development of Specific Plans can be considered; and DCED, FCADC, FCIDA, and WIDC can be worked with to identify potential funding strategies for land purchase and infrastructure improvements to support economic development.  Also:


Review opportunities created with the recent passage of Pennsylvania’s Economic Stimulus Package;


Investigate the potential for PENNVEST funding for reinvestment and redevelopment of brownfield sites;


Inform economic development agencies of areas and buildings available for commercial and industrial development;


Maintain low interest revolving loan funds for business start-up and improvements;


In the zoning ordinance, build in flexibility with regard to permitted uses to facilitate the re-use of vacant and underutilized buildings;


Identify sources of gap financing to make investment projects feasible; and


Determine opportunities for Keystone Innovation Zones (KIZs), and Keystone Opportunity Zones (KOZs).


Residential Reinvestment Areas


The Residential Reinvestment Areas in the Borough are areas where it is important to stabilize and enhance residential neighborhoods through such actions as initiating an Elm Street Program; supporting ownership programs, such as down payment assistance and assistance in meeting housing expenses; and fostering programs which encourage home renovation, rehabilitation, and enhancement.


Related actions listed in the Action Plan include:


           Establish and maintain adequate housing and property maintenance codes.


           Foster programs which encourage home renovation and rehabilitation in existing neighborhoods. 


           Identify programs and policies that will help residents maintain and enhance their properties, meet housing expenses and retain their homes as owner-occupied single family residences.


           Enact zoning regulations that provide incentives for senior housing.


           Consider grant and revolving low-interest loan programs for owner-occupied housing rehabilitation.


           Implement code enforcement programs to identify code violations that can be corrected by rehabilitation or demolition.


           Facilitate neighborhood maintenance through programs for home improvements, including weatherization, painting, lighting, and neighborhood cleanup.


           Develop home façade improvement program.


           Maintain low-interest loan and grant programs for rehabilitation and housing purchase through local banks.


           Maintain down-payment assistance programs for housing purchases. 


           Maintain rental unit licensing and annual inspections to discourage substandard rentals.


           Review examples of non-profit agencies which buy homes, rehabilitate them, and sell them to moderate income households, in partnership with HUD and banks offering attractive mortgages.


           Develop block by block approaches to neighborhood revitalization, with analysis of needs for rebuilding and rehabilitation.


          Determine the merits of providing tax abatement for rehabilitated or repaired structures.


          Support ownership/first time ownership programs, such as down payment assistance.


          Identify and target housing unit infill opportunities, and create infill housing projects.



[1] Source: Natural Lands Trust, Media, PA